The Arch of Caracalla was built in 216 AD in honor of Emperor Caracalla and his parents Julia Domna and Severe Septime. The arch was dismantled by the Duc d’Orleans in 1839, ready to be shipped to Paris, but when the duke died 3 years later the project was abandoned. The arch was reconstructed in 1922.
49Lugo City Walls
Located in northwestern Spain, Lugo is the only city in Europe to be surrounded by completely intact Roman walls. The walls reach a height of 10 to 15 meters (30-50 feet) along a circuit ringed with 71 towers. The walk along the top is continuous round the circuit, and features ten gates.
48Les Ferreres Aqueduct
Les Ferreres Aqueduct (also known as Pont del Diable meaning Devil’s Bridge) was built to take water from the Francoli water 15 kilometers (9 miles) south to the city of Tarragona. It probably dates from the time of Augustus, the first ruler of the Roman Empire. The aqueduct has a maximum height of 27 meter and a length of 249 meter. It was composed by 25 upper arches and 11 lower arches.
47Baths of Caracalla
The Baths of Caracalla were Roman public baths, or thermae, built in Rome between AD 212 and 216, during the reign of the Emperor Caracalla. The complex of buildings was more a leisure centre than just a series of baths. Besides being able to hold an estimated 1, 600 bathers, it also featured a public library and a wrestling school. The baths remained in use until the 6th century when the complex was sacked by the Ostrogoths during the Gothic War, destroying the hydraulic installations.
The Valens Aqueduct was completed in the year 368 AD during the reign of Roman Emperor Valens, whose name it bears. It was merely one of the terminal points of a system of ancient aqueducts and canals – which eventually reached over 250 kilometers (155 miles) in total length, the longest such system of Antiquity. The Valens Aqueduct was restored by several Ottoman Sultans and was still the major water-providing system of medieval Constantinople.
45Roman Theatre of Amman
The Roman Theater of Amman was built during the reign of Marcus Aurelius in the 2nd century AD. It is cut into the hillside and oriented north to keep the sun off the spectators. The theater was built on three tiers: the rulers, sat closest to the action, the military had the middle section, and the general public sat on the highest section. Although far from the stage, even there the actors could be clearly heard, owing to the steepness of the theater.
44Arch of Septimius Severus
Lucius Septimius Severus was a Roman Emperor born in Leptis Magna who reigned 193 until his death in 211. The citizens of Leptis probably started the construction immediately after their fellow citizen had become emperor. The central scene on the arch shows the emperor shaking hands with his sons, Caracalla and Geta. Caracalla is shown as a tall young man and this offers a clue for the moment of completion of the arch, probably in the early 200’s.
43Arch of Titus
Arch of Titus in Rome was constructed in 82 AD by the Roman Emperor Domitian shortly after the death of his older brother Titus to commemorate Titus’ victory in the Sack of Jerusalem in 70 AD. The Arch of Titus has provided the general model for many of the triumphal arches erected since the 16th century including the Arc de Triomphe.
42Theatre of Side
In 25 BC Side became part of the Roman province Galatia and prospered through its trade in olive oil and slaves. The roman ruins of Side that are in fairly good condition today include a temple, city gate and an ancient theater which could seat about 15, 000 to 20, 000 people.
Timgad was a Roman colonial town in North Africa founded by the Emperor Trajan around 100 AD. At the west end of the town rises a 12 meter (39 feet) high arch, called Trajan’s Arch which was partially restored in 1900. The chief material used in building the arch was sandstone.
Dougga is sometimes called “the best-preserved Roman small town in North Africa”. Amongst the most famous Roman monuments at the site are a Punic-Libyan mausoleum, the theatre and the capitol. The capitol is a Roman temple from the 2nd century CE, principally dedicated to the three most important Roman gods: Jupiter, Juno and Minerva.
39Theatre of Sabratha
Sabratha’s was established around 500 BC as a Phoenician trading-post and reched its peak under Roman rules as a coastal outlet for the products of the African hinterland. The Theatre of Sabratha was built in the 2n century AD. The Roman structure appears largely intact owing to its reconstruction by Italian archaeologists in the 1930s. The theatre had 25 entrances and could seat approximately 5, 000 spectators.
38Pyramid of Cestius
The Pyramid of Cestius in Rome was built around 18 BC – 12 BC as a tomb for Gaius Cestius Epulo. It is of brick-faced concrete covered with white carrara marble. It is assumed that the monument was modeled on the true pyramids in Nubia, which Rome attacked in 23 BC, as opposed to the much less steeply-pointed Egyptian pyramids.
Dedicated to Helios, the Roman god of the sun, the Garni temple was built by the Armenian King Trdates I in the 1st century AD. The construction was probably funded with money the king received from the Roman Emperor Nero in exchange for military support against the Parthian empire. Unlike other Greco-Roman temples, it is made of basalt. In 1679 an earthquake completely destroyed the ancient Roman temple and it lay in ruins until its reconstruction in the 1970s.
36Temple of Augustus in Pula
The Temple of Augustus is the only remaining structure from the original Roman forum in Pula. Dedicated to the first Roman emperor, Augustus, it was probably built during the emperor’s lifetime at some point between 2 BC and his death in AD 14. Under Byzantine rule, the temple was converted into a church and was later used as a granary. It suffered considerable damage during WWII when the temple was hit by a bomb. Consequently, much of the monument was rebuilt since that time.
35Leptis Magna Arena
The Roman amphitheater of Leptis Magna dates from 56 AD and lies about a kilometer east of the city center. It was capable of seating 16, 000 spectators. Unlike most Roman amphitheaters, it is built below the ground.