List of Architectural styles

November 2, 2014
Red Fort
  • Pattern language – a term coined by architect Christopher Alexander, a structured method of describing good design practices within a field of expertise.
  • Regional architecture[edit]

    Architecture of the world

    History of architecture[edit]

    Restrained neoclassical style: the Elisabethkirche in Berlin.

    Main articles: History of architecture and Timeline of architecture

  • Ancient Egyptian architecture – architecture of ancient Egypt, which developed a vast array of diverse structures and great architectural monuments along the Nile, among the largest and most famous of which are the Great Pyramid of Giza and the Great Sphinx of Giza.
  • Achaemenid architecture – the architectural achievements of the Achaemenid Persians manifesting in construction of complex cities (Perspepolis, Susa, Ecbatana), temples made for worship and social gatherings (such as Zoroastrian temples), and mausoleums erected in honor of fallen kings (such as the burial tomb of Cyrus the Great).
  • Armenian architecture – an architectural style developed over the last 4, 500 years of human habitation in the Armenian Highland (the eastern part of Asia Minor) and used principally by the Armenian people.
  • Maya architecture – the structures of the Maya civilization, which was established circa 2000 BC and continued until its conquest by the Spanish (in the 16th and 17th centuries). Some of its notable constructions include ceremonial platforms, palaces, E-Groups, pyramids, temples, observatories, and ballcourts.
  • Sumerian architecture – the ancient architecture of the region of the Tigris–Euphrates river system (also known as Mesopotamia).
  • Ancient Greek architecture – the architecture of ancient Greece, where the classical orders were developed, establishing a precedent for the subsequent development of classical architecture.
  • Ancient Roman architecture – adopted the principles of ancient Greek architecture and developed both new decorative forms, and much more complex building forms, notably adopting the use of arches and vaults.
  • Buddhist architecture – developed by the worshipers of Buddha in South Asia in the 3rd century BCE, and associated with three types of structures: monasteries (viharas), stupas, and temples (Chaitya grihas).
  • Mesoamerican architecture – the set of architectural traditions produced by pre-Columbian cultures and civilizations of Mesoamerica, best known in the form of public, ceremonial and urban monumental buildings and structures.
  • Islamic architecture – encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam to the present day, influencing the design and construction of buildings and structures in Islamic culture.
  • Newa architecture – style of architecture used by the Newari people in the Kathmandu valley in Nepal, ranging from stupas and chaitya monastery buildings to courtyard structures and distinctive houses.
  • Medieval architecture – a term used to represent various forms of architecture common in Medieval Europe.
  • Iranian architecture – or Persian architecture is the historic architecture of Iran (Persia).
  • Hoysala architecture – building style developed under the rule of the Hoysala Empire between the 11th and 14th centuries, in the region known today as Karnataka, a state of India.
  • Renaissance architecture – the architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.
  • Classical architecture – architecture derived in part from the Greek and Roman architecture of classical antiquity, enriched by classicizing architectural practice in Europe since the Renaissance.
  • Baroque architecture – the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late sixteenth century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church and the absolutist state.
  • Neoclassical architecture – an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement which began in the mid-18th century, manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural formulas as an outgrowth of some classicizing features of Late Baroque.
  • Gothic Revival architecture – also called "Victorian Gothic" and "Neo-Gothic", an architectural movement that began in the late 1840s in England. Its popularity grew rapidly in the early 19th century, when increasingly serious and learned admirers of neo-Gothic styles sought to revive medieval forms, in contrast to the neoclassical styles prevalent at the time.
  • Modern architecture – generally characterized by simplification of form and absence of ornament. Although now historical, the ubiquitous international style which predominates in cities worldwide remains a strong influence in contemporary architecture.
  • Postmodern architecture – began as an international style the first examples of which are generally cited as being from the 1950s, but did not become a movement until the late 1970s and continues to influence present-day architecture.
  • Buildings[edit]

    Although not all buildings are architecture, the term encompasses a huge range of building types, as summarised in the following list pages:

    Structural elements[edit]

    Refer to: Category: Architectural elements
  • Arch – a curved structure, often made up blocks or bricks, spanning across an opening and supporting the weight of structure above. Works by transferring vertical loads into compression forces. There are many arch shapes including semicircular, segmental, parabolic, pointed (gothic), three-point and flat arches.
  • Beam (structure) – a straight structural member, typically wood or steel, capable of spanning from one support to another and supporting the weight of structure above. Works by resisting bending forces.
  • Dome – a roof structure, typically hemispherical, constructed in a similar way to an arch. The plan shape may be circular, elliptical or polygonal, and the cross section shape can vary in the same ways as an arch.
  • Foundation or footing – solid base usually below ground, upon which buildings and other structures are built. Works by spreading vertical loads over a sufficient area to ensure the structure will not subside.
  • Lintel – a structural member spanning across the top of an opening. Unlike a beam, a lintel spans a relatively short distance which can be spanned by single block of stone of sufficient depth. Concrete, timber and steel lintels are also used in different types of construction.
  • Truss – a structure spanning in the same way as a beam, but using materials more efficiently by using triangulation to create a rigid structure. Typically timber or steel, used to support a pitched roof.
  • Wall – a linear structure enclosing the exterior of an area or building, or subdividing an internal space. A wall may be loadbearing or non-loadbearing.
  • Window – an opening in a wall, typically rectangular, providing light and ventilation. Usually but not always glazed.
  • Source: en.wikipedia.org
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